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Library of Celcius
THE LIBRARY OF CELSUS
The Celsus Library was erected in A.D 135 by Julius Aquila for his father Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, the consul of Asia province of Roman Empire. He died in A.D.114 at the age of 70. In the Roman period all but the bodies of heroes were buried outside the borders of cities. Aquila was granted permission for his father to be buried in a marble grave in a burial chamber in the library. Celsus�s sarcophagus lay inside the building, under the middle apse.
The library, measuring 60.90 by 16.72 meters had a two storied facade and a large room inside. The columns at the sides of the facade are shorter than those at the center, giving the illusion of the building being greater in size. Its facade contains exemplars of   architectural elements that are among the most beautiful ones of the period, such as doors, windows, gables, niches and columns. A gap of one meter between inner and outer walls of the the library protected the books from extremes of temperature and humidity. The sarcophagus of  Celsus stand under the west side of the library. The semicircular niche on the main floor facing the central portal probably contained either the statue of Celsus or his son or the statue of Athena. It is thought that there was an auditorium for lectures or presentations between the library and the Marble Road.Four female statues standing between the columns personify the virtues of Celsus: Sophia (wisdom), Arete (virtue), Ennoia (intelligence), Episteme (knowledge). The original of the statues were taken to Vienna, Austria. Celsus himself is buried in a sarcophagus beneath the west side of the library.
Inside of the library is measured  10.92m x 16.72m. There were 12.000 rolls of books at the library. During the attacks of the Goths inside of the library was burned down however the facade of the library was not destroyed. The facade was restored together with the other structures at Ephesus in A.D. 4th century and a small nymphaeum was built near the stairs. The whola facade was ruined during a severe earthquake occured in A.D. 10th century. During the excavations carried out at the library  the friezes on both sides of the nymphaeum which depicted the wars against the Parthians. It is assumed that these friezes belonged to the altar situated in the north of the court just in front of the library. The sarcophagus which lies in the court was unearthed in 1968. The inscriptions on it state that  it belonged to Tiberius Claudius Flavianus Dionysos and it was built in the 2nd century A.D.THE GATE OF MAZEUS AND MÝTHRÝDATES
The Mazaeus and Mithridates Gate is the triple gateway next to the Celsus Library which opens into the commercial agora forming its southeast gate. According to the inscriptions in Latin, it was built by two freed slaves Mazaeus and Mithridates in honor of Augustus, his wife Livia, his daughter Julia and his son-in-law Agrippa. According to the inscriptions in Greek, Mazaeus and Mithridates dedicated the gate to their masters.The gate had three arched entrance of which the middle one is wider than the others. In the walls of the side entrances there are semicircular niches. The insciption on the right niche reads that anyone who pissed there would be punished severely.
The reconstruction of the gate was only completed in 1988. Missing parts were replaced with concrete and its surface was plastered
Following the Marble Road you will arrive at The Celsus Library, one of the city's most magnificent buildings and  the finest example of its form in existence. Following the criterion of the Roman architect Vitruvius, the library faces east to take advantage of the morning light. The front entrance is a two-storied façade with large windows over the doors to let in the light. The library had to be squeezed into the space available between older buildings. The columns in front were very cleverly designed, producing an optical illusion that the building front looks wider than it actually is. Behind the front columns are four niches containing replicas of the original statues. Sophia represented Wisdom, Arete-Excellence, Eunoia-Goodwill and Episteme-Knowledge. While the front of the building is two-tiered, the interior was one large room with three levels of galleries or balconies. The building had a double wall to protect the books inside against humidity.  The books, or papyrus scrolls, were kept in the many niches which lined the walls. Access to the niches was via the balconies. The Library was believed to have held about 12,000 books, a substantial collection for its time Inscriptions on the front of the building indicate that the library was erected in 110 AD by the Consul Gaius (Tiberius) Julius Aquila as a mausoleum for his father Gaius (Tiberius) Julius Celsus Polemaenus Aquila (92-114 AD). A sum of 25,000 denarii was bequeathed for the purchase of books and the upkeep of the building. In 262 AD during the Gothic raids, the library was destroyed by fire, but the façade remained undamaged. It seems that the building was then abandoned and in the 4th Century the area in front of it was converted into a pool and fountain. The beautiful façade, would have been reflected in the pool, and the library served no function other than mere decoration.The façade collapsed during an earthquake around the 10th Century. In  the course of excavation, a reliefs commemorating a victory over the Parthians was found in the pool. This relief or frieze, depicting the victory of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, is now on diplay in a museum in Vienna.

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